Code of Ethics

Code of Ethics

Aware of the role and duty of the lawyer in a democratic society, based on the principles of the rule of law, humanity and human dignity, with respect for truth and justice, the Lawyer's Code of Ethics is drawn up.


The norms of the Code of Ethics are based on:

  • The Constitution of the Republic of Albania.
  • Ratified International Agreements.
  • Legislation in force and especially Law no. 9109 dated 17.7.2003 "On the Profession of Lawyer in the Republic of Albania".
  • The Statute of the National Chamber of Advocates of Albania.
  • Customs and Tradition of the lawyer profession in Albania.
  • The lawyer's function is based on a variety of legal and moral obligations towards: • The client.
  • Ratified International Agreements.
  • The court and other authorities before which the lawyer defends the client's affairs or acts on his behalf. .
  • The Chamber of Advocacy in general and each of its members individually.
  • The public, for whom the existence of a free, independent and self-organized profession is a fundamental tool for preserving human rights against the power of the state and other interests in society.


The Code aims to deal with the establishment, respect and implementation of the rules of conduct, professional ethics of the lawyer in the service of protecting the rights and legitimate interests of the client and in the service of the interests of justice.


      • Article 30


    • The lawyer must behave with respect, honesty and integrity towards the court in order to represent and protect the interests of his client within the limits set by the law and the code of ethics.


      • Article 31


    • The lawyer must never seek to influence the court by means prohibited by law, as well as conduct behavior that aims to disrupt the solemnity of the judgment or the judgment itself based on it.


      • Article 32


    • A lawyer may not give a gift, loan or valuables to a judge or a court official.
      The Governing Council of the National Chamber of Advocates may approve the lawyer's request to make an exception to this rule, in special cases.


      • Article 33


    • A lawyer is prohibited from appearing to represent the client's interests before a judge with whom the lawyer is closely related or has an intimate relationship.


    • Article 34


  • The lawyer must never, with his knowledge, provide false or misleading information during the judicial process.
    A lawyer should never induce a witness to give false testimony.
    A lawyer should never cause reasonable delays in court hearings.


    • Article 15


    • A lawyer must always act in the best interests of his client. The relationship of trust with the client is a professional obligation. Trust is achieved when the lawyer is characterized by honesty and integrity.

Article 16


    • The lawyer must explain to the client the law and the line of action that he will follow, highlighting the possible legal consequences in his favor or against him. The lawyer must respond to the client's reasonable requests for information. A lawyer must inform his client about important matters related to representation in a timely manner in order for the client to reasonably defend himself or herself, or to take advantage of an opportunity provided by law, including any remedies offered. from the other side.

Article 17


    • At the request of his client, the lawyer must return any original document received by the client due to his representation.

Article 18


    • The lawyer, with the approval of the client, can enter into the administration of the client's assets and his funds that may be deposited in the bank. For these funds and assets of the client, the lawyer keeps complete documentation for the actions performed. The documentation is kept for a period of 7 years starting from the end of the representation of the case. For criminal cases, this term starts from the moment of completion of serving the sentence.
      Funds are kept in separate accounts in the country where the lawyer's office is located or in another country where there is approval from the client.
      Article 19
      For receiving funds or any other assets owned by the client, the lawyer is obliged to notify the client.
      The lawyer must keep the client's funds separate from his own funds. At the request of the client, the lawyer immediately returns to him all funds or assets and, on his own initiative or at the request of the client, makes a full accounting regarding this asset.

Article 20


  • The lawyer cannot provide legal assistance, advise, represent or defend on behalf of two or more clients in the same case, in case there is a conflict of interests of those clients between them.Article 21
    The lawyer does not represent and waives the representation or protection of two or more persons, when a conflict of interests arises between the clients, when the lawyer is convinced that the representation will harm the relations with the other client.

    Article 22

    A lawyer who has previously represented a client in a matter, does not represent another client in the same matter, when the interests of this person harm the interests of the previous client.
    Representation is allowed exceptionally, only if the previous client gives his consent.

    Article 23

    The lawyer must also withdraw from the representation or defense in case there is a risk of breach of confidence of the previous client, or in case the knowledge possessed by the lawyer about the matter of the previous client, would constitute an unfair advantage to the new client. The above rule is also valid for the case when the lawyer's profession is practiced in partnership, or from the same office.
    Article 24
    A lawyer should not engage in business transactions with a client if he and the client have different interests and when the client expects the lawyer to exercise professional judgment for the protection of the client, except when:


    • The transaction and the conditions in which the lawyer has acquired interests are fair, reasonable for the client and have been fully stated and transmitted in writing in a way that can be understood as reasonable by the client;
    • The lawyer advises the client to seek the advice of an independent lawyer regarding the transaction; AND
      The client gives his approval in writing, after fully declaring the terms of the transaction and the inherent conflict of interest in this transaction.

    Article 25
    A lawyer must not work for a new client if there is a risk of breaching confidences entrusted to the lawyer by a former client or if the knowledge has been gained as a result of previous employment as a government employee.
    Article 26
    The lawyer may exercise his right to waive representation or defense. The lawyer withdraws from the representation or defense when the client fails to fulfill the legal, moral and financial obligations towards the lawyer in relation to his services and when he has previously been warned by the lawyer that he will withdraw in case the obligations are not fulfilled.

    Article 27
    Upon termination of representation or defense, the lawyer, in agreement with the client, takes measures that he deems reasonable for the protection of the client's interests by notifying him at an appropriate time, but always not less than 15 days, to given him the opportunity to find another lawyer.

    Article 28

    • The lawyer is entitled to a fee for his services. The fee must be determined in a written agreement between the lawyer and his client. In the absence of a written agreement, the fee must be determined in accordance with the fee rates provided by the "Lawyers Legal Services Fee", approved by the National Chamber of Advocacy. In both cases, the fee must not be lower than the minimum, defined in the rates for this type of service.
    • An attorney's fee must be reasonable and fair. Factors to consider in determining how reasonable a fee is include:
      • The time and work required, the novelty and difficulty of the issues involved and the skills required to perform the legal services;
      • Time limitations imposed by circumstances;
      • The nature and duration of the professional relationship with the client;
      • The experience, reputation and ability of the lawyer or lawyers, in performing the services;
      • As well as other factors appreciated by him.
    • The lawyer should not be entitled to make a pactum de quota litis. By "pactum de quota litis" is meant an agreement reached before the end of the case, which determines the fees to be paid to the lawyer only for the results achieved and in which the client undertakes to pay the lawyer a part of the result achieved.
    • The lawyer is allowed to set "result fees" with the exception of family or criminal law matters. "Result fees" means:
      • Written agreements between the lawyer and the client, under which the lawyer undertakes to initiate a case or case according to specified minimum fees and the client agrees to pay a reasonable fixed amount depending on his positive results. The amount can be defined as a total amount or as a percentage of the money determined by the court decision.
      • A written agreement between a lawyer and a client under which the lawyer undertakes to initiate a matter or case with a specified minimum fee and the client agrees to pay additional fees for a successful outcome.
    • The lawyer can provide free legal assistance for:
      • People who are in financial difficulties;
      • People who are supported with financial assistance;
    • The lawyer may offer services free of charge to close friends, relatives or other lawyers.

    Article 29
    The lawyer must not withdraw from an undertaken representation, except when there are reasonable reasons, such as, among others:

    • Overload or insufficient knowledge in a particular legal field;
    • Dishonesty of the client's reasons for seeking legal assistance;
    • When the client insists that the lawyer undertake actions that are contrary to the law or the code of ethics;
    • When the client insists that the lawyer take actions that are contrary to his professional assessment;
    • When the customer cannot pay for the assistance or does not fulfill the contractual obligations for the payment of the assistance already provided;

    The lawyer may not exercise his right to withdraw from a case in such a way or under such circumstances that the client may not be able to provide timely legal assistance.


    • Article 49


    • Every person in society should have easy access to the independent professional services of a lawyer.

Article 50


    • The lawyer has the right to advertise his activity, according to the rules and restrictions defined in this Code.
      Lawyer advertising is only intended to provide the client with the necessary information so that he has the opportunity to choose the most suitable lawyer.
      Advertising must not:


      • That by means or content contradicts the main principles or obligations of the lawyer defined in this Code;
      • Contain false, inaccurate or misleading or factual information which cannot be verified;
      • Make comparisons or criticize other lawyers, especially their fees or practice fees;
      • To include statements regarding the quality of the lawyer's work, the extent of his activity, special fees;
      • Identify the customer before obtaining their written approval.
      • Any other information that may violate the provisions of this Publicity Code may contain information:
        • Fields of law in which the lawyer practices;
        • About the professional background and professional training of the lawyer;
        • About knowledge of foreign languages;
        • Regarding the start time of the activity, the location of its headquarters, or its change, but not more than 30 days from the day it started/moved.

Article 51


    • Solicitation of clients through direct contact with a potential client with the sole purpose of persuading him/her to need the services of a lawyer with whom the lawyer has no family or previous professional relationship or through the use of a "realtor", is prohibited. With the exception of the usual price of the respective publicity, the lawyer must not give anything of value to a person who recommends the lawyer's services.

Article 52


    • The lawyer must not reach any agreement personally or through a realtor with his client to secure property or other rights, which are the subject of the case.

Article 53


    • A lawyer shall not request or accept from a lawyer or any other person a fee, commission or any other type of payment for referring or recommending a client. A lawyer must not pay anyone a fee, commission or any other kind of payment for referring a client to him.

Article 54


  • Lawyers who do not comply with the Code of Ethics commit a disciplinary violation, which is the reason for the initiation of disciplinary proceedings and for taking the measures provided for by Law No. 9109 dated 17.7.2003 "On the Profession of Lawyer in the Republic of Albania" and the Statute of the National Bar Association.

The Lawyer's Code of Ethics, after being discussed in the General Council of the National Chamber of Advocacy on 12.11.2005, was approved by decision no. 31 of this Council. The date of entry into force of the Code is 12.11.2005, and it supersedes the previous code of ethics.


      • Article 35


    • Relations between lawyers must be based on the principles of cooperation, mutuality and confidentiality in the interest of their clients.

Article 36

    • The lawyer must get to know the lawyers of the National Chamber and reflect to them politeness and correct attitudes in accordance with the norms of professional ethics.

Article 37

    • The lawyer, for a special case, can communicate with the lawyer of the other party. It is not allowed for the lawyer to communicate with the opposing party regarding the concrete case, when he knows that he is represented by a lawyer, without the latter's consent.

Article 38


    • A lawyer who temporarily gives up practicing his profession as long as he is in a working relationship with the public administration, must not allow his/her name to remain in the name of the law office or be used in the office's professional announcements during the period in which the lawyer does not participate actively and regularly in law enforcement as a member of the office.

Article 39


    • In court proceedings with opposing parties, in order for all parties and lawyers to have equal access to the court, the lawyer must not, without notifying the other party or his lawyer, contact or provide documents or materials to the court regarding a case under review or to be brought to trial, under circumstances which may have the effect of, or which may give the impression of, an unfair advantage to one party. This provision will not be applied to cases where such actions are permitted by law.

Article 40


    • A lawyer who has undertaken to complete the unfinished legal affairs of a lawyer who has died must pay to the heirs of the deceased lawyer that portion of the total fee which fairly represents the services rendered by the deceased lawyer. A lawyer may pay his non-lawyer assistants salary, social security and other similar payments even if the funds come from the lawyer's fees.

Article 41


    • The lawyer should not compare his services with the services of other lawyers.
      The lawyer must not comment on other lawyers about special fees or about the way of practicing the profession.
      A lawyer who commits disparagement of a client who was previously represented by another lawyer should not criticize the services rendered by the previous lawyer.

Article 42


    • The lawyer must not make any efforts, which are not in accordance with the dignity of the profession, to take the client of his colleague.

Article 43


    • Before undertaking the representation of a client who has been represented by another lawyer, the lawyer is obliged to satisfy himself that the previous lawyer-client relationship has been properly terminated.
      This provision does not apply in cases where the client is represented by more than one lawyer at the same time and terminates the representation relationship with the person.

Article 44


    • The lawyer is obliged to follow the work of his assistant, share experience with him and enable his professional qualification.
      The lawyer must make efforts for the assistants to act in accordance with the law and the Code of Ethics. The lawyer is obliged to provide the assistant with a certificate that proves the length of time as an assistant with him, at the request of the assistant.

Article 45


    • A lawyer must not represent or advise a client in matters where the other party's lawyer is the lawyer's spouse, parent, child or sibling, lives with the lawyer, or has an intimate personal relationship with the lawyer, unless the latter has informed the client his written on this relationship.
      This prohibition is valid for partners of a law office and partners of a company.

Article 46

    • In cases where the client's interests are protected by two or more lawyers who are independent from each other and when the lawyers defend different opinions regarding the possibilities for the client's protection, the final decision will be taken by the client. Lawyers who disagree with the decision may withdraw from representing or defending the client.

Article 47


    • The lawyer has the duty not to accept the cooperation with a lawyer of another state for a matter for which he is not competent. In this case, he should help his colleague to contact another lawyer who can offer the requested service.

Article 48

  • When the lawyer cooperates with a lawyer of another country, he is obliged to take into account the differences that may exist between the legal systems and the relevant codes of ethics.


        • Article 1
      • The lawyer is independent in the exercise of his profession. To ensure independence, the lawyer must be free from any influence that may arise from his personal interests or external pressure.

      Article 2

      • The lawyer in the exercise of the profession acts in accordance with the law, the Statute, the Code of Ethics and the legal interests of the client, offering him professional services based on his best judgment.

      Article 3

      • The independence of the lawyer is as necessary to trust in the justice process as the impartiality of the judge. The lawyer must avoid any violation of his independence and not compromise the professional standards to satisfy the client, the court or third parties.


      Article 4

    • The lawyer must always maintain the dignity of the profession. The lawyer must keep them displayed in his office.
      • "Lawyer" title certificate.
      • The Albanian flag and that of the National Chamber of Advocates on the desk.
      • The minimum remuneration fee for the lawyer's work.

The lawyer must not make insulting or disparaging statements about the activity or decisions of courts or other authorities.

    • The lawyer should encourage the client to behave with respect towards the court or other authorities.
    • In order to maintain the good reputation of himself and the Bar Association, the lawyer must not tolerate improper and disrespectful behavior on the part of the court and anyone else towards the lawyer, assistant, student or client. The general and legal culture of the lawyer must be manifested at every moment during the exercise of the profession, in his appearance, in the words he speaks and in the relationships he creates with anyone.
    • The lawyer appears in the trial process with the identity card for each year and the lawyer's uniform. The lawyer cannot be involved in actions related to dishonesty or bad representation. The lawyer, in practice and in his private life, must stay away from any behavior that could invalidate the good name of the profession.


      • Article 5
    • The lawyer must always act with dedication and readiness when representing a client.

Article 6

    • The lawyer has the duty to serve the client's interests in the most efficient way possible.

Article 7

    • The lawyer must provide quality representation of the client. Ability includes legal knowledge and professional skills which are necessary in each specific case.

Article 8

    • A lawyer should not handle a matter for which he does not have the necessary skills except when cooperating with a lawyer who is competent to handle it.

Article 9

    • The lawyer has the duty to develop his skills through continuing professional training.


      • Article 10
    • In order to perform his functions with due independence and in a manner compatible with his duty to participate in the administration of justice, the lawyer must be exempted from certain activities. The types and number of these activities are defined in Law No. 9109 dated 17.7.2003 "On the Lawyer Profession in the Republic of Albania". A lawyer working alone or in partnership should not engage in any other activity if, doing so, might compromise independence.

Article 11

    • A lawyer is prohibited from forming a partnership with a person who is not a lawyer in case the partnership's activity consists of practicing law.

Article 12

    • A lawyer must not assist a non-lawyer to practice an unauthorized profession.

Article 13

    • A lawyer or law firm does not share legal fees with a non-lawyer. The lawyer cannot request, accept or pay another lawyer, or another person a fee or any other type of reward for sending or recommending a client.


      • Article 14
    • Confidentiality arising from the law and the norms of professional ethics is a right, obligation and guarantee for the lawyer. The lawyer, due to the special information he receives from the client in good faith, is not allowed to violate the requirements of Article 9 of the Law "On the Exercise of the Profession of Lawyer in the Republic of Albania"

Article 15

  • A lawyer must maintain the confidentiality of all information provided by his client or received by him, about that client or others, while performing services for the client. The obligation to maintain confidentiality is not limited in time. The lawyer must ask his partners and staff and anyone else engaged by him during the provision of professional services to maintain confidentiality. The obligation of confidentiality is not violated when:
    • The lawyer informs a person to whom he is delegating individual tasks for legal services on the progress of the case in question, provided that such a person is also subject to the obligation of confidentiality.
    • Discloses confidences or secrets with the consent of the client or clients in question, but only after fully disclosing it to them.
    • Reveals confidences or secrets necessary to set or receive attorney's fees or to defend the attorney or his employees or partners against a charge of misconduct.