Bar Exam

Bar Exam

The exam will be evaluated with a maximum of 150 points, of which: 
– Constitutional law, 1 theoretical question has 10 points.
– Civil and commercial law, 1 theoretical question has 20 points.
– Civil Procedure Law 1 theoretical question has 10 points.
– The case of civil law + civil procedure has 20 points.
– Criminal law, 1 theoretical question has 20 points.
– The law of criminal procedure 1 theoretical question has 10 points.
– Case I of criminal law + criminal procedure has 20 points.
- Administrative law 1 theoretical question has 10 points.
- Labor law, 1 theoretical question has 10 points.
– Family law, 1 theoretical question has 10 points.
- Law "On Advocacy", 1 theoretical question has 10 points.

    • 1.What is the highest representation and decision-making body of the National Bar Association?
    • 2.What powers does it have and how does it make decisions?
    • 3.Reflect on some of the main powers of the Governing Council of the KA and how are they provided for in the Statute of the National Chamber?
    • 4.In which cases is the lawyer subject to disciplinary proceedings and how are the procedures for starting disciplinary proceedings and the decision-making bodies defined in the Law and Statute, and what does the law provide for the right to appeal?
    • 5.Determine the cases when the license to practice the profession of lawyer is revoked.
    • 6.In what cases does the law and the Statute of the National Chamber of Advocacy provide for exemption from the exam and what procedure is followed by the person who requests to be exempted and the bodies that make this decision?

- Law on Advocacy in the Republic of Albania.
- Statute of the National Chamber of Advocates.
– Lawyer's Code of Ethics.

    • 1. General principles of public administration. The principle of legality, equality and proportionality, justice and impartiality, accountability, internal and external control, etc.
    • 2. The meaning of the legal status of public administration bodies. The meaning of the administration body. The constituent elements that characterize an administrative body. Classification of administrative bodies.
    • 3. The meaning and legal status of Albanian citizens, foreigners and stateless persons. Citizenship, residence, marital status. The rights and obligations of Albanian citizens. The legal regime of foreigners.
    • 4. Central government and local government bodies. The Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister, the Minister, the Prefect, the Council of the municipality and the municipality, as well as their presidents. The district council, the election and exercise of their activity.
    • 5. The concept for the administrative act. The form, content, purpose and justification of the administrative act. Features of the administrative act. The difference between the administrative act and the judicial decision.
    • 6. Methods of classification of the administrative act. Classification of akite according to initiative, form, effects, content and designations.
    • 7. The power of the administrative act. Issuance, announcement and entry into force of the act, retroactivity and execution of the act.
    • 8. Validity of the administrative act. Conditions for the validity of the act.
    • 9. Invalidity of the act. Administrative acts absolutely invalid The relatively invalid acts.
    • 10. Suspension of the act. Actual leave; Legal vacation (revocation; annulment by the higher body; annulment by the court).
    • 11. Judicial review and constitutional review of the administrative act. The concept of judicial review; the bases, principles, purpose and causes of judicial review
    • 12. Judicial review of discretionary acts as well as administrative contracts. The concept of discretion; administrative contracts; new acts.
    • 13. Civil service in R.Sh. The concept of employment, the criteria that must be met to start the civil service employee status and the way to leave it.
    • 14. Administrative offenses. Administrative offenses and its constituent elements. Initiation of administrative proceedings; procedure for issuing administrative penalties. The organs of judgment of the offense.

- Texts of Administrative Law used in the Faculty of Law of the University of Tirana.
– Commentary on the Code of Administrative Procedures.
- Constitution of the Republic of Albania.
– Code of Administrative Procedures as well as specific laws that regulate legal relations in the field of public administration.
– Judicial practice of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.
- Scientific journals in the legal field.

    • 1. Understanding of civil legal relations. Features and characteristics of legal-civil relations.
    • 2. The elements of the civil legal relationship (subject, content, object).
    • 3. Subjects of Civil Law according to the Civil Code of the Republic of Albania. The special position maintained by the state as the subject of civil legal relations.
    • 4. Its legal capacity, character, content, beginning and end. Ability to act, understanding. Persons with full capacity to act, with limited capacity and no capacity to act, termination, removal and limitation of capacity to act.
    • 5. Residence and its importance in civil law. Civil status, its meaning. Civil Status Acts and their difference from the facts recorded in the basic register. The difference between civil status registers and those of civil status acts.
    • 6. The meaning of the legal person. Its features (elements).
    • 7. Ways of creating legal entities. The legal capacity to act of legal persons according to our and foreign legislation.
    • 8. Types of legal entities according to the Civil Code and their distinguishing characteristics.
    • 9. The name and form, center of the legal entity, their importance. Branches and representative offices, their legal position in civil circulation.
    • 10. Termination of the legal entity.
    • 11. Features of trading companies.
    • 12. Termination of trading companies according to the law "On trading companies".
    • 13. Features of the private juridical person. Joint ventures with foreign capital.
    • 14. The form of transfer of the assets of a commercial company. The form of requests for the registration of firms and properties. The legal consequences of the transfer of a commercial activity.
    • 15. Registration of a trading company. The elements that are declared and registered for all forms of commercial company.
    • 16. Definition of commercial company. Commercial character of the company.
    • 17. Lawsuit for the irregularity of the establishment or change of the statute. Liability for irregular establishment
    • 18. Collective society. Its definition and characteristics.
    • 19. Limited companies. Definition and status of partners.
    • 20. Limited liability company. Its characteristics.
    • 21. Forms of capital increase in the limited liability company.
    • 22. Transfer of shares of the basic capital. Transfer to third parties and within the family or by inheritance. Transfer between partners.
    • 23. Administration of the limited liability company.
    • 24. Legal responsibility of administrators. Appointment and dismissal of administrators.
    • 25. The assembly of the partners of the LLC The call of the assembly. Making decisions.
    • 26. Renewal of the limited liability company in another form of company.
    • 27. Anonymous company. Its definition and general characteristics.
    • 28. Companies with public offers and companies without public offers. Their characteristics.
    • 29. Subscription of capital and redemption of shares.
    • 30. Management of the joint-stock company. Governing bodies. Directory. Supervisory Board. Appointment of the members of the Directorate and the Supervisory Board. Their abilities.
    • 31. Assembly of shareholders. Ordinary assembly and extraordinary assembly. Calling the assembly. Method of calling, determining the order of the day.
    • 32. Increase of the basic capital of an anonymous company. Modalities, deadline. The competent bodies that carry out the capital increase.
    • 33. Reduction of the capital of the joint-stock company. Modalities.
    • 34. Shares, their form. Transfer of shares, nominal value. Stock trading.
    • 35. Subsidiaries. Participating companies and controlled companies. Their meaning and importance.
    • 36. Invalidity. The case of invalidity. Prescription of assets for invalidity.
    • 37. Merger and division of trading companies. Merge and split modes.
    • 38. Objects as objects of civil legal relations and their importance. Classification of things and the importance of classification for civil law.
    • 39. Money, its meaning and importance. Understanding securities.
    • 40. Meaning, constituent elements and classification of legal actions.
    • 41. Understanding the invalidity of legal actions. Types of insignificance, the importance of this difference.
    • 42. Consequences of invalidity of legal actions. Consequences of legal invalidity for third parties.
    • 43. Condition and term in legal actions. Their meaning and difference.
    • 44. Meaning, content, importance of representation, its limits and consequences. Substitution in representation and consequences.
    • 45. Power of attorney, meaning, form and significance.
    • 46. Representation without fees. Meaning and consequences.
    • 47. The meaning of the prediction and the field of its application. The importance of the Prescription Institute in the conditions of our society.
    • 48. Prescription periods, their meaning and method of calculation.
    • 49. The suspension of prescription, the causes and consequences it brings. The conditions that must be fulfilled to result in the suspension of the deadline.
    • 50. Interruption of the prescription, meaning, causes and consequences of the interruption.
    • 51. Consequences of fulfilling the limitation periods.
    • 52. Prescription of the execution of judicial decisions and executive titles. Deadlines. What are the rules to be followed for the execution of decisions and executive titles when the execution is suspended or terminated.
    • 53. Property and its types.
    • 54. The subjective right of ownership, meaning, content, object.
    • 55. The elements of the subjective right to property, their meaning, independence and limitations.
    • 56. Co-ownership in part. Its meaning and content. Its administration, disposition and distribution.
    • 57. Meaning of compulsory co-ownership.
    • 58. The meaning of the profit of the property and the ways of its profit, the importance and difference of the ways of profit (first, derived).
    • 59. Special ways of acquiring property.
    • 60. The general ways of acquiring property and their importance, contracts, acquisition in trust of movable objects, acquisition by statute of limitations, inheritance by means of income, acquisition by virtue of the law or the decision of the state body.
    • 61. Loss of property, meaning, causes.
    • 62. Property protection, meaning and legal remedies for its protection.
    • 63. The defendant's liability for income and property and his rights for expenses.
    • 64. Special protection of the victim, self-defense and lawsuit for the defense of the victim (possessory lawsuit).
    • 65. Understanding inheritance.
    • 66. Assets that are inherited.
    • 67. The ability to inherit.
    • 68. The purpose of inheritance, the meaning, time and place of the purpose of inheritance, their importance.
    • 69. Disinheritance, term and manner of disinheritance.
    • 70. Inheritance by law.
    • 71. Circle of legal heirs.
    • 72. The method of calling legal heirs (order of call).
    • 73. Inheritance with representation.
    • 74. Inheritance by will. The meaning of the will and its importance. The form of the will.
    • 75. The ability to make a will.
    • 76. The circle of testamentary heirs.
    • 77. Appointment and exclusion of heirs by will. People who enjoy the legal reserve.
    • 78. Revocation and invalidity of the will.
    • 79. Understanding inheritance protection.
    • 80. The measures taken to ensure the inheritance (inventory, storage, custody).
    • 81. Evidence of inheritance. Meaning, importance, issuing body.
    • 82. Lawsuit for seeking inheritance.
    • 83. Easements.
    • 84. Usufruct.
    • 85. The meaning of the contract, its elements and conditions. Interpretation of the contract.
    • 86. Guilt in Civil Law. Liability without fault and cases of this liability.
    • 87. Debtor and creditor delay. Consequences of delay.
    • 88. The principle of the full reward of the bull. Demi and the conditions for the existence of a legal relationship arising from the cause of the demi.
    • 89. Meaning and difference between contracting and outsourcing bull. The moral bull, its types and the way of calculating the moral bull.
    • 90. The principle of fulfillment in the nature of obligation. Non-fulfillment and the consequences that come from it.
    • 91. The binding of the contract and its main stages. Determination of the cast of the binding of the contract, theories that exist related to this determination.
    • 92. The sales contract, the transfer of ownership, the delivery of the item, the seller's obligations in this contract.
    • 93. Donation contract, its change from the will and from the contract for the benefit of the third person. Donation revocation.
    • 94. Property lease contract (apartments, land, etc.), elements, conditions, obligations of the parties, termination of the contract, financial lease.
    • 95. The emphyteosis contract, its change from the lease contract.
    • 96. Order contract and commissions, conditions, elements.
    • 97. Agency contract.
    • 98. Transport contract, the elements, the position of the host in this contract, the resolution of disagreements between the parties, its change by the forwarding agent.
    • 99. Property insurance contract, elements, conditions, time of its entry into force.
    • 100. The life and health insurance contract, its characteristics, limitations of its action, the date of entry into force of this contract.
    • 101. The entrepreneurship contract and its elements. Risk as a distinguishing feature of this contract.
    • 102. Prosperity without cause, the conditions for arising obligations from this legal obligation relationship.
    • 103. Completion of the obligation, compensation, repetition and its conditions, confusion, death of a party, etc.
    • 104. Means for ensuring the fulfillment of the obligation, mortgage, pledge, down payment, guarantee.
    • 105. Copyright.

- Civil Code.
– Law no. 9901, dt. 14.04.2008 "For traders and trading companies".
– Law no. 7632. dt. 4.11.92 "On the provisions that regulate the first part of the commercial code.
- Provisions of the Land Law.
- Provisions of the law on Privatization.
- Provisions of the law on the Privatization of State Housing.
- Provisions of the law on Registration of Civil Status Acts.
- Provisions of the law for Chambers of Commerce and Industry.
- Provisions of the law on Property Registration, Immovable Property, etc.
– The respective relevant texts and lectures that are used in the Faculties of Law of the Republic of Albania.

– Magazines: 
1. Legal Tribune.
2. Legal Life.
3. Legal Studies.
4. Accounting, Finance and Auditing.
5. Unifying Decisions of the United Colleges of the Supreme Court.

    • 1. Creation of individual work reports. Definition, Birth of work relations.
    • 2. Prohibition of competition after termination of employment.
    • 3. General obligations of the employer.
    • 4. Termination of the employment relationship. Contract with indefinite duration. Contract with fixed term.
    • 5. Immediate termination of the contract.

- The texts used in the Faculties of Law of the Republic of Albania.
– Work code.
– Judicial practice of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.

    • 1. Marriage. Terms of connection, forms of marriage and invalidity of marriage.
    • 2. The rights and obligations arising from marriage as well as the mutual rights and obligations of the spouses.
    • 3. Wealth regimes. Marital regime in the community and community with contracts. Regime of separate assets.
    • 4. End of marriage. Cases of termination of marriage.
    • 5. Cases of dissolution of marriage. Consequences of divorce.
    • 6. Athesia. Obligation for food and obliged persons.
    • 7. Parental responsibility, meaning, exercise of parental responsibility as well as parental responsibility for the child's property.
    • 8. Adoption and foster care types of foster care.

- Texts of Family Law that are used in the Faculties of Law of the Republic of Albania.
- Family code.
– Judicial practice of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.

Constitutional Right

    • 1.The meaning and importance of the independence of the judge.
    • 2.The electoral system in the Republic of Albania.
    • 3.Normative function of government (acts and their classification).
    • 4.Personal liberty (Hebeas Corpus).
    • 5.Legislative initiative. Its types.
    • 6.The right to a regular judicial process.
    • 7.The meaning of the Constitution in the formal and material aspect.
    • 8.The meaning and role of the President in the Parliamentary Republic. Acts approved by the President of the Republic and their classification. Relations between the President of the Republic and the judiciary based on the Constitution.
    • 9.The process of appointing and dismissing judges of the Supreme Court. Cases of their dismissal.
    • 10.The necessary conditions to be a Judge in the Republic of Albania. The role and functioning of the KLD for the appointment and dismissal of judges. The High Council of Justice and its role in judicial independence.
    • 11.Laws for amending the constitution. Differences from ordinary laws.
    • 12. The relations of the President of the Republic with the legislative and executive powers based on the Constitution.
    • 13. Normative sources in the Constitution. The criteria for their placement.
    • 14. The principle of separation of powers. His main demands.
    • 15. Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
    • 16. Parliamentary procedures for the approval of laws.
    • 17. The European Convention on Human Rights, general features and its place in the constitution of Albania in relation to other normative sources provided for in it.
    • 18. The principle of non-retroactivity of the law in the constitution, its role in ensuring personal rights.
    • 19. Acts approved by the Council of Ministers and their classification.
    • 20. Political function and administrative function of government.
    • 21. Election and mandate and commissions of the Assembly of Albania.
    • 22. The principle of presumption of innocence in the constitution. His role in guaranteeing the person.

Procedural guarantees for the defendant in the criminal process based on the constitution.

    • 23. Relations between the government and the parliament based on the constitution, parliamentary control over the government.
    • 24. How is the relationship between ordinary and constitutional courts expressed based on the constitution.

- Constitution of the Republic of Albania.
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
– European Convention on Human Rights.
– Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.
- Law on the organization of justice.
- "Justice" magazines.
- Texts and lectures that are used in the Law Faculties of the Republic of Albania.

    • 1.Criminal law types and its application. The operation of criminal law in time and in space.
    • 2.The meaning of the criminal offense. Types of criminal offense. Separation of the criminal offense. The meaning and importance of criminal responsibility.
    • 3.Object of the figure of the criminal offense. Their types.
    • 4.The objective side of the figure of the criminal offense. The understanding of action and inaction as elements of the objective side of the criminal offense.
    • 5.Causal connection.
    • 6.Manner, time, place, environment as an element of the objective side of the criminal figure.
    • 7.The subject of the criminal offense. Age of criminal responsibility.
    • 8.The meaning of cooperation, the subjective and the objective moment. Co-workers and their responsibility. Forms of cooperation.
    • 9.Attempt, its types. Responsibility for the attempt.
    • 10.Abstention from committing the criminal offense.
    • 11.Meaning, purpose and system of punishments. Complementary sentences. Removal of rights to exercise state duties. Penalty with fines.
    • 12.Imprisonment sentence, life imprisonment sentence. The way of serving the sentence is life imprisonment. The difference between criminal punishment and educational medical measures. Medical, educational measures.
    • 13.The way of setting the sentence. Extenuating circumstances. Aggravating circumstances.
    • 14.The meaning of guilt. His forms. Desire. Its forms. Carelessness, its forms.
    • 15.Exemption of minors from sentencing. Reduction of prison sentence.
    • 16.Purpose, motive as an element of the subjective side.
    • 17.The necessary protection. Conditions of protection. Distinguish between necessary protection and extreme needs.
    • 18.Extreme need. Conditions of protection.
    • 19.Pardon, change from amnesty.
    • 20.Intentional murder. Its component elements. Types.
    • 21.Premeditated murder.
    • 22.The murder committed in crossing the limits of the necessary protection.
    • 23.Manslaughter. The murder committed under conditions of strong mental shock.
    • 24.Intentional murder due to the special qualities of the victim.
    • 25.Theft.
    • 26.Destruction of property. Destruction of property by fire. Destruction of property with explosives.
    • 27.The quest for myth-giving and myth-sharing.
    • 28.Organization of illegal gatherings and demonstrations with the participation of the armed forces.
    • 29.Intentional grievous hurt. Intentional minor injury. Serious injury due to negligence.
    • 30.Production and possession of cold weapons without a permit. Production and possession of hunting and sports weapons without permission.
    • 31.Compilation of false statements. Forgery of signatures. Providing false information.
    • 32.Violent sexual relations with minors aged 14-18 years. Sexual relations with adult violence.
    • 33.Production and sale of narcotics. Cultivation of narcotic plants.
    • 34.Sexual intercourse with the threat of using a weapon. Sexual intercourse by dereliction of duty.
    • 35.Smuggling of prohibited goods. Smuggling with goods subject to excise duty. Smuggling of licensed goods.
    • 36.Non-escalation of crime. Hiding or ignoring the corpse. Concealment of income. False testimony.
    • 37.Maintaining premises for prostitution.
    • 38.The need for extradition. Irradiation conditions.
    • 39.Coin counterfeiting. Forgery of securities. Forgery of letters or visas.
    • 40.Suspension of the execution of the decision with imprisonment and the obligation to perform a work of public interest. Anticipation of criminal prosecution.
    • 41.Giving an unfair decision. Anticipation of the execution of the sentence. Objecting and hitting the referee.
    • 42.Theft by dereliction of duty. Use of the task.
    • 43.Terrorist acts.
    • 44.Theft of banks and savings banks.
    • 45.Armed robbery.
    • 46.Hit due to duty.
    • 47.Armed gang, criminal organization and organized criminal group.
    • 48.Fraud with subsidies.
    • 49.Objection of the employee who performs a state duty or public service. Objection of an employee of the public order police.

– Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania.
- Texts used in the Faculty of Law of the Republic of Albania.
– Commentary on the Criminal Code.
– Judicial practice of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.
- Scientific journals in the legal field.

    • 1. The court as a subject of the civil process.
    • 2. The judgment for the judicial verification of the facts.
    • 3. Content and deadlines of appeal, recourse and review, the difference between them.
    • 4. Counter-appeal (counter-appeal and counter-appeal).
    • 5. Judgment for removing or limiting the ability to act.
    • 6. The lawsuit. types of lawsuits, its elements. Burden of proof.
    • 7. Judgment for the declaration of a person as missing or dead.
    • 8. Types of lawsuits, the reasons that justify filing a lawsuit.
    • 9. Judgment for the devaluation of securities.
    • 10. Conditions for exercising the right to sue.
    • 11. Opposing the action or refusal of the bailiff to perform a certain action.
    • 12. Content of the claim. Its elements.
    • 13. Execution of obligations for the performance of a certain action.
    • 14. Counterpadia. Its difference from a claim and a claim.
    • 15. Judicial apportionment.
    • 16. Understanding evidence. Types and classification of evidence. Written evidence and material evidence.
    • 17. Active legitimacy and passive legitimacy of the parties.
    • 18. Contesting the validity of the executive title.
    • 19. Statements of witnesses. Witness questioning procedure.
    • 20. Opposition to enforcement actions by a third party.
    • 21. The procedure of judging objections to the bailiff's actions.
    • 22. Executive titles and execution order.
    • 23. Expertise and expert opinion.
    • 24. Plaintiff as subject.
    • 25. Evaluation of evidence.
    • 26. The respondent as the subject of the civil judicial process.
    • 27. The main intervenors as subjects of the civil judicial process.
    • 28. Limiting the use of witness statements.
    • 29. Executive procedural legal relations, elements and content.
    • 30. Execution of obligations for the delivery of items.
    • 31. Simple letter. Disputing the authenticity of the documents.
    • 32. Secondary interveners as subjects of the civil judicial process.
    • 33. The object of the trial.
    • 34. The actions of the bailiff for voluntary and compulsory execution.
    • 35. The material meaning of the lawsuit and its procedural meaning. Consequences brought by the lawsuit after its registration in court.
    • 36. The actions of the bailiff for the execution of cash obligations against citizens.
    • 37. Claim insurance and proof insurance, the difference between them.

- Provisions of the New Civil Code.
– Provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure.
- Provisions of the law that regulate the first part of the Commercial Code.
- Provisions of the law on Commercial Companies.
- Provisions of the Commercial Registration Law.
- The provisions of the law on land.
- Provisions of the Privatization Law.
- Provisions of the law on the Privatization of State Housing.
- Provisions of the law on Registration of Civil Status Acts.
- Provisions of the law for Chambers of Commerce and Industry.
- Provisions of the law on Real Estate Registration, etc.
– Relevant texts and lectures used in the Faculties of Law of the Republic of Albania.
– Judicial practice of the Lane Court and the Constitutional Court.
- Scientific journals in the legal field.

    • 1. Criminal procedural systems and the Criminal Procedure Code.
    • 2. The main principles of the procedure.
    • 3. Material evidence.
    • 4. Mainly designated defender.
    • 5. The principle of independence of the court.
    • 6. The defendant's question.
    • 7. Investigation and detention terms.
    • 8. Preliminary actions for the judgment of the case.
    • 9. Invalidity of procedural acts.
    • 10. The rights of the defendant in the criminal process.
    • 11. Land and land powers.
    • 12. New accusation during the trial.
    • 13. Rules for taking evidence in a court session.
    • 14. Direct judgment. Constituent elements of a judicial decision.
    • 15. Expertise.
    • 16. Suspension of investigations.
    • 17. Security measures. Conditions and criteria for determining insurance measures.
    • 18. Personal security measures and restrictive measures. Arrest in flagrante delicto.
    • 19. Summary judgment.
    • 20. The testimony.
    • 21. The rights of the defender.
    • 22. Evaluation of evidence.
    • 23. Judgment on appeal.
    • 24. Controls.
    • 25. Substitution of the insurance measure.
    • 26. Cases of dismissal of the criminal case by the prosecutor.
    • 27. It's time to take the evidence.
    • 28. Restore on time.
    • 29. Providing evidence.
    • 30. Eavesdropping of conversations or communications.
    • 31. Translation of acts.
    • 32. Civil action in the criminal process.
    • 33. Means of appeal, types and differences between them.
    • 34. The confrontations.
    • 35. Revocation of security measures.
    • 36. Review of decisions.
    • 37. Consolidation of proceedings.
    • 38. Extradition abroad.
    • 39. Procedure conditions.
    • 40. The documents.
    • 41. Correction of the court decision.
    • 42. The accused victim in the criminal process.
    • 43. International mail order.
    • 44. Settlement of disputes, prejudice and competence.
    • 45. Judicial police.
    • 46. Cases of dismissal of the judge.
    • 47. Execution of foreign criminal decisions.
    • 48. Differences between direct trial and summary trial.
    • 49. Reviews.
    • 50. The evaluation session of the arrest in flagrante delicto and the suspect.

– Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Albania.
- Law "On Advocacy in the Republic of Albania".
- The texts used in the Faculties of Law of the Republic of Albania.
– Commentary on the Criminal Procedure Code.
– Judicial practice of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.
- Scientific journals in the legal field.